Function, form, safety, and environment. SYLO is a family of hybrid cycle rickshaws that fulfils all four design pillars to deliver good performance and a smooth ride. SYLO is designed for short distances, catering to commuters and delivery services. What sets it apart from its counterparts is its mixed-propulsion technology, using both photovoltaic panels and pedal power. Adding to its ‘green’ points is the fact that recyclable plastics have been used for the body. This helped from an engineering perspective because it kept the vehicle light, allowing it to serve its function despite the difficult terrain it must operate in.
What sets it apart from its counterparts is its mixed-propulsion technology, using both photovoltaic panels and pedal power.
Form was an especially important factor in the design process. As the aim was to use this vehicle both within the historical context of the capital city, Valleta, and in cosmopolitan spaces such as Paceville and Bugibba, it was essential for the vehicle to complement its built environment, be it classical or contemporary. Towards this end, bold lines were used, making the vehicle look distinct without looking alien.
SYLO was the product of 10 mechanical engineering students supervised by academics from the Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering,Faculty of Engineering, University of Malta as partof a third-year engineering design project.
Despite their many drawbacks, fossil fuels maintain a toxic hold as the world’s primary energy source. To release ourselves, we need innovative approaches to sourcing and managing energy. At the University of Malta, researchers have designed a solar-powered catamaran that uses smart-charging and battery management to efficiently utilise renewable energy. The project aims to serve as inspiration to usher in a future of environmentally friendly vehicles. Words by Diane Cassar.
Nearly two-thirds of the Earth is covered in water. Yet we know more about the surface of the moon and Mars than we do of our own ocean floor. Humans have an understandable fear of water and desire to remain safe on land. The oceans are formidable places requiring sophisticated equipment. Even more dangerous is exploring uncharted areas.
The term ‘robot’ tends to conjure up images ofwell-known metal characters like C-3P0, R2-D2, and WALL-E. The robotics research boom has in the end enabled the introduction of real robots into our homes, workspaces, and recreational places. The pop culture icons we loved have now been replaced with the likes of robot vacuums such as the Roomba and home-automated systems for smoke detectors, or WIFI-enabled thermostats, such as the Nest. Nonetheless, building a fully autonomous mobile robot is still a momentous task. In order to purposefully travel around its environment, a mobile robot has to answer the questions ‘where am I?’, ‘where should I go next?’ and ‘how am I going to get there?’
Like humans, mobile robots must have some awareness of their surroundings in order to carry out tasks autonomously. A map comes in handy for humans. A robot could build the map itself while exploring an unknown environment—this is a process called Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping (SLAM). For the robot to decide which location to explore next, however, an exploration strategy would need to be devised, and the path planner would guide the robot to navigate to the next location, which increases the map’s size.
Rachael Darmanin (supervised by Dr Ing. Marvin Bugeja), used a software framework called Robot Operating System (ROS) to develop a robot system that can explore and map an unknown environment on its own. Darmanin used a differential-drive-wheeled mobile robot, dubbed PowerBot, equipped with a laser scanner (LIDAR) and wheel encoders. The algorithms responsible for localising the robot analyse the sensors’ data and construct the map. In her experiments, Darmanin implemented two different exploration strategies, the Nearest Frontier and the Next Best View, on the same system to map the Control Systems Engineering Laboratory. Each experiment ran for approximately two minutes until the robot finished its exploration and produced a map of its surroundings. This was then compared to a map of the environment to evaluate the robot’s mapping accuracy. The Next Best View approach generated the most accurate maps.
Mobile robots with autonomous exploration and mapping capabilities have massive relevance to society. They can aid hazardous exploration, like nuclear disasters, or access uncharted archaeological sites. They could also help in search and rescue operations where they would be used to navigate in disaster-stricken environments. For her doctorate, Darmanin is now looking into how multiple robots can work together to survey a large area—with a few other solutions in between.
This research was carried out as part of a Master of Science in Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malta. It was funded by the Master it! Scholarship Scheme (Malta). This scholarship is part-financed by the European Union European Social Fund (ESF) under Operational Programme II Cohesion Policy 2007–2013, Empowering People for More Jobs and a Better Quality Of Life.
Malta has a target: by 2020, 10% of the generation of energy should come from the renewables. Luckily, there is a resource which is available almost every third hour a year—sunshine. Dr Ing. Maurice Apap and Ing. Jurgen Bonavia explain how the solar energy can be harvested. Words by Tuovi Mäkipere.
By the year 2030, due to the rise in age-expectancy and accompanying increase in frequency in bone-weakening conditions, total hip replacement surgeries will increase by 174%. One of the most important facets of implant surgery is biocompatibility. Durable implants that are biocompatible with human tissue are needed to prevent rejection and failure. And with this logarithmic expected rise, the need for longer lasting implants will be needed more than ever before.
Currently, metallic biomedical implants are the most common type. These, however, have a limited durability, often requiring surgery to be replaced after a decade. The combined action of wear and corrosion (termed tribocorrosion), brought about by friction during joint movements and the body’s aggressive environment, causes implant failure. A material called biomedical grade 316 LVM stainless steel is commonly used in hip-joint implants. It naturally forms a thin oxide film on its surface that protects the material from the body’s hostile environment. The problem with stainless steels is that despite this natural coat, tribocorrosion processes at the joints still form debris leading to problems for the patient and implant failure. Such failure can cause severe pain and expense when the hip implant needs to be replaced.
Antonino Mazzonello (supervised by Dr Ing. Bertram Mallia and Dr Ing. Joseph Buhagiar), is investigating a new type of coating on hip implants. He is analysing the corrosion-wear performance of a dual-layer coating made up of a Chrome-Nitride (Cr-N) layer followed by a Cobalt-Chrome-Molybdenum-Carbide (Co-Cr-Mo-C) layer deposited on top of low-temperature carburised stainless steel (the coatings are made by Prof. Peter Dearnely [Boride Services Ltd.]. This treatment is owned and carried out by Bodycote Plc. The top layer reduces friction while the bottom layer toughens the coating, reducing its removal. When the dual-layered stainless steel is compared to the untreated steel, the treated material is more resistant to wear and corrosion.
This new dual-coated material promises to be an ideal candidate for hip joint implants. Apart from being harder and more resistant, its low friction means that less effort would be required to move the joint. The encouraging results mean that in the near future this technology could be implemented in clinics. Mallia points out that ‘such multi-layered coatings may offer a giant step in increased durability for a relatively small additional expense.’
This research is being performed as part of a Master’s degree in Mechanical Engineering, which Antonino Mazzonello is reading at the Faculty of Engineering, University of Malta. The research is supported by an Endeavour Scholarship. This scholarship is part-financed by the European Union; European Social Fund under Operational Programme II (ESF) 2014-2020, “Investigating in human capital to create more opportunities and promote the wellbeing of society”.
Spacecraft failures are spectacular. These unfortunate events are seared into the public memory. One reason why rockets can fail are software bugs. If a rocket’s computer system fails, that infamous blue screen leads to lost work hours, billions of Euro, and lives. Researchers from the Faculty of ICT and Faculty of Engineering (University of Malta) tell THINK about their collaboration with the European Space Agency (ESA) to test novel satellite software architecture to prevent rocket failure.